Cities and towns in Connecticut


Andover
Town184815.463,303Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
2AnsoniaCity18896.0319,249Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
3AshfordTown171438.794,100Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
4AvonTown183023.1218,098Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
5BarkhamstedTown177936.223,620Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
6Beacon FallsTown18719.786,049Town meetingNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
7BerlinTown178526.4519,866Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
8BethanyTown183220.975,563Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth Central
9BethelTown185516.7918,584Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
10BethlehemTown178719.363,607Town meetingLitchfield CountyNaugatuck Valley
11BloomfieldTown183526.0120,486Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
12BoltonTown172014.414,980Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
13BozrahTown178619.972,627Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
14BranfordTown168521.9828,026Representative town meetingNew Haven CountySouth CentralTotoket
15BridgeportCity182116144,229Mayor-councilFairfield CountyCT MetropolitanPequonock
16BridgewaterTown185616.231,727Town meetingLitchfield CountyWestern CT
17BristolCity178526.5160,477Mayor-councilHartford CountyNaugatuck Valley
18BrookfieldTown178819.816,452Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
19BrooklynTown178628.978,210Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
20BurlingtonTown180629.89,301Town meetingHartford CountyNorthwest Hills
21CanaanTown173932.951,234Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
22CanterburyTown170339.95,132Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CTPeagscomsueck
23CantonTown180624.5710,292Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
24ChaplinTown182219.432,305Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
25CheshireTown178032.9129,261Council-managerNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
26ChesterTown183616.033,994Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
27ClintonTown183816.2813,260Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
28ColchesterTown169849.0616,068Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
29ColebrookTown177931.471,485Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
30ColumbiaTown180421.365,485Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
31CornwallTown174046.011,420Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
32CoventryTown171237.7212,435Council-managerTolland CountyCapitol Region
33CromwellTown185112.3914,005Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
34DanburyCity168742.1180,893Mayor-councilFairfield CountyWestern CTPahquioque
35DarienTown182012.8620,732Representative town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
36Deep RiverTown163513.554,629Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverPattaquasset
37DerbyCity16754.9812,902Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck ValleyPaugasset
38DurhamTown170823.67,388Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverCoginchaug
39East GranbyTown185817.485,148Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
40East HaddamTown173454.339,126Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverMacki-moodus
41East HamptonTown176735.5912,959Council-managerMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
42East HartfordTown178318.0251,252Mayor-councilHartford CountyCapitol RegionPodunk[1]
43East HavenTown178512.2629,257Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth Central
44East LymeTown183934.0319,159Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
45East WindsorTown176826.2911,162Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
46EastfordTown184728.891,749Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
47EastonTown184527.427,490Town meetingFairfield CountyCT Metropolitan
48EllingtonTown178634.0515,602Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
49EnfieldTown168333.3844,654Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
50EssexTown185210.366,683Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverPatapoug
51FairfieldTown166630.0359,404Representative town meetingFairfield CountyCT MetropolitanUncoway
52FarmingtonTown164528.0625,340Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
53FranklinTown178619.511,922Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
54GlastonburyTown169051.3734,427Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
55GoshenTown173943.662,976Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
56GranbyTown178640.6911,282Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
57GreenwichTown166547.8361,171Representative town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CTPatuquapaen
58GriswoldTown181534.9511,951Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
59GrotonTown170531.340,115Representative town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
60GuilfordTown163947.0522,375Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth CentralMenunkatuck
61HaddamTown166244.038,346Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
62HamdenTown178632.7860,960Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth Central
63HamptonTown1786251,863Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
64HartfordCity163517.31124,775Mayor-councilHartford CountyCapitol RegionSuckiag
65HartlandTown176133.032,114Town meetingHartford CountyNorthwest Hills
66HarwintonTown173730.755,642Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
67HebronTown170836.99,686Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
68KentTown173948.472,979Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest HillsScatacook
69KillinglyTown170848.5217,370Council-managerWindham CountyNortheast CTAspinock
70KillingworthTown166735.336,525Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverHammonasset
71LebanonTown170054.117,308Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
72LedyardTown183638.1415,051Mayor-councilNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
73LisbonTown178616.264,338Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
74LitchfieldTown171956.068,466Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest HillsBantam
75LymeTown166731.852,406Town meetingNew London CountyLower CT River
76MadisonTown182636.218,269Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth Central
77ManchesterTown182327.2658,241Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
78MansfieldTown170244.4626,543Council-managerTolland CountyCapitol RegionNoubesetuck
79MarlboroughTown180323.286,404Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
80MeridenCity180623.7560,868Council-managerNew Haven CountySouth Central
81MiddleburyTown180717.757,575Town meetingNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
82MiddlefieldTown186612.74,425Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
83MiddletownCity165140.947,648Mayor-councilMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverMattabeset
84MilfordCity163922.5652,759Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth CentralWepawaug
85MonroeTown182326.1319,479Town meetingFairfield CountyCT Metropolitan
86MontvilleTown178642.0219,571Mayor-councilNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
87MorrisTown185917.192,388Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
88NaugatuckBorough184416.3931,862Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
89New BritainCity185013.3473,206Mayor-councilHartford CountyCapitol Region
90New CanaanTown180122.1319,738Mayor-councilFairfield CountyWestern CT
91New FairfieldTown174020.4613,881Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
92New HartfordTown173837.036,970Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
93New HavenCity163818.85129,779Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth CentralQuinnipiac
94New LondonCity16465.5427,620Mayor-councilNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CTNameaug
95New MilfordTown171261.5928,142Mayor-councilLitchfield CountyWestern CTWeantinogue
96NewingtonTown187113.1830,562Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
97NewtownTown171157.7627,560Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CTQuonapague
98NorfolkTown175845.311,709Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
99North BranfordTown183124.9214,407Council-managerNew Haven CountySouth Central
100North CanaanTown185819.453,315Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
101North HavenTown178620.7724,093Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth Central
102North StoningtonTown180754.315,297Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
103NorwalkCity165122.8185,603Mayor-councilFairfield CountyWestern CTNaramauke
104NorwichCity166228.3340,493Council-managerNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CTMohegan
105Old LymeTown185523.17,603Town meetingNew London CountyLower CT River
106Old SaybrookTown185415.0410,242Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
107OrangeTown182217.1913,956Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth Central
108OxfordTown179832.8912,683Town meetingNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
109PlainfieldTown169942.2715,405Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
110PlainvilleTown18699.7617,716Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
111PlymouthTown179521.7212,243Mayor-councilLitchfield CountyNaugatuck Valley
112PomfretTown171340.34,247Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CTMashamoquet
113PortlandTown184123.49,508Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT River
114PrestonTown168730.94,726Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
115ProspectTown182714.329,405Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
116PutnamTown185520.299,584Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CTQuinebaug
117ReddingTown176731.59,158Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
118RidgefieldTown170934.4324,638Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CTCaudatowa
119Rocky HillTown184313.4519,709Representative town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
120RoxburyTown179626.232,262Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest HillsShepaug
121SalemTown181928.954,151Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
122SalisburyTown174157.323,741Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest HillsWeatogue
123ScotlandTown185718.611,726Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
124SeymourTown185014.5716,540Town meetingNew Haven CountyNaugatuck ValleyNaugatuck
125SharonTown173958.72,782Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
126SheltonCity178930.5739,559Mayor-councilFairfield CountyNaugatuck ValleyQuorum
127ShermanTown180221.83,581Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
128SimsburyTown167033.8823,511Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
129SomersTown173428.3411,444Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
130South WindsorTown184527.9625,709Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
131SouthburyTown178739.0619,904Town meetingNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
132SouthingtonTown177935.9943,069Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
133SpragueTown186113.212,984Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
134StaffordTown171957.9612,087Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
135StamfordCity164137.75122,643Mayor-councilFairfield CountyWestern CTRippowam
136SterlingTown179427.233,830Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
137StoningtonTown166238.6918,545Town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CTPawcatuck, Mistack
138StratfordTown163917.5951,384Mayor-councilFairfield CountyCT MetropolitanCupheag
139SuffieldTown167442.2115,735Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
140ThomastonTown187512.017,887Town meetingLitchfield CountyNaugatuck Valley
141ThompsonTown178546.949,458Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT
142TollandTown171539.7115,052Council-managerTolland CountyCapitol Region
143TorringtonCity174039.7936,383Mayor-councilLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
144TrumbullTown179723.2936,018Mayor-councilFairfield CountyCT Metropolitan
145UnionTown173428.71854Town meetingTolland CountyNortheast CT
146VernonTown180817.7329,179Mayor-councilTolland CountyCapitol Region
147VoluntownTown172138.922,603Town meetingNew London CountyNortheast CT
148WallingfordTown167039.0245,135Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth CentralQuinnipiac
149WarrenTown178626.311,461Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
150WashingtonTown177938.193,578Town meetingLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
151WaterburyCity168628.57110,366Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck ValleyMattatuck
152WaterfordTown180132.7519,517Representative town meetingNew London CountySouth Centraleastern CT
153WatertownTown178029.1522,514Council-managerLitchfield CountyNaugatuck Valley
154West HartfordTown185421.9863,268Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
155West HavenCity192110.8455,564Mayor-councilNew Haven CountySouth Central
156WestbrookTown184015.726,938Town meetingMiddlesex CountyLower CT RiverPochaug
157WestonTown178719.810,179Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CTAspetuck
158WestportTown183520.0126,391Representative town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CTSaugatuck
159WethersfieldTown163412.3926,668Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol RegionPyquag
160WillingtonTown172733.276,041Town meetingTolland CountyCapitol Region
161WiltonTown180226.9518,062Town meetingFairfield CountyWestern CT
162WinchesterTown177132.2811,242Council-managerLitchfield CountyNorthwest Hills
163WindhamTown169227.0725,268Town meetingWindham CountySouth Centraleastern CT
164WindsorTown163329.6329,044Council-managerHartford CountyCapitol Region
165Windsor LocksTown18549.0312,498Town meetingHartford CountyCapitol Region
166WolcottTown179620.4316,680Mayor-councilNew Haven CountyNaugatuck Valley
167WoodbridgeTown178418.838,990Town meetingNew Haven CountySouth Central
168WoodburyTown167336.479,975Town meetingLitchfield CountyNaugatuck ValleyPomperaug
169WoodstockTown168660.547,964Town meetingWindham CountyNortheast CT

Cities and towns in Mass

MunicipalityType[1]County[2]Form of government[1]Population 
(2010)[2]
Year 
established[3]
AbingtonTownPlymouthOpen town meeting15,9851712
ActonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting21,9241735
AcushnetTownBristolOpen town meeting10,3031860
AdamsTownBerkshireRepresentative town meeting8,4851778
AgawamCity[4]HampdenMayor-council28,4381855
AlfordTownBerkshireOpen town meeting4941773
AmesburyCityEssexMayor-council16,2831668
AmherstTownHampshireCouncil-manager37,8191775
AndoverTownEssexOpen town meeting33,2011646
AquinnahTownDukesOpen town meeting3111870
ArlingtonTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting42,8441807
AshburnhamTownWorcesterOpen town meeting6,0811765
AshbyTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting3,0741767
AshfieldTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,7371765
AshlandTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting16,5931846
AtholTownWorcesterOpen town meeting11,5841762
AttleboroCityBristolMayor-council43,5931694
AuburnTownWorcesterRepresentative town meeting16,1881778
AvonTownNorfolkOpen town meeting4,3561888
AyerTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting7,4271871
BarnstableCity[4]BarnstableCouncil-manager45,1931639
BarreTownWorcesterOpen town meeting5,3981774
BecketTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,7791765
BedfordTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting13,3201729
BelchertownTownHampshireOpen town meeting14,6491761
BellinghamTownNorfolkOpen town meeting16,3321719
BelmontTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting24,7291859
BerkleyTownBristolOpen town meeting6,4111735
BerlinTownWorcesterOpen town meeting2,8661812
BernardstonTownFranklinOpen town meeting2,1291762
BeverlyCityEssexMayor-council39,5021668
BillericaTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting40,2431655
BlackstoneTownWorcesterOpen town meeting9,0261845
BlandfordTownHampdenOpen town meeting1,2331741
BoltonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting4,8971738
BostonCitySuffolkMayor-council617,6601630
BourneTownBarnstableOpen town meeting19,7541884
BoxboroughTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting4,9961835
BoxfordTownEssexOpen town meeting7,9651685
BoylstonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting4,3551785
BraintreeCity[4]NorfolkMayor-council35,7441640
BrewsterTownBarnstableOpen town meeting9,8201803
BridgewaterCity[4]PlymouthCouncil-manager26,5631656
BrimfieldTownHampdenOpen town meeting3,6091731
BrocktonCityPlymouthMayor-council93,8101821
BrookfieldTownWorcesterOpen town meeting3,3901718
BrooklineTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting58,7321705
BucklandTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,9021779
BurlingtonTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting24,4981799
CambridgeCityMiddlesexMayor-manager-council105,1621636
CantonTownNorfolkOpen town meeting21,5611797
CarlisleTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting4,8521780
CarverTownPlymouthOpen town meeting11,5091790
CharlemontTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,2661765
CharltonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting12,9811755[5]
ChathamTownBarnstableOpen town meeting6,1251712
ChelmsfordTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting33,8021655
ChelseaCitySuffolkCouncil-manager35,1771739
CheshireTownBerkshireOpen town meeting3,2351793
ChesterTownHampdenOpen town meeting1,3371765
ChesterfieldTownHampshireOpen town meeting1,2221762
ChicopeeCityHampdenMayor-council55,2981848
ChilmarkTownDukesOpen town meeting8661714
ClarksburgTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,7021798
ClintonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting13,6061850
CohassetTownNorfolkOpen town meeting7,5421775
ColrainTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,6711761
ConcordTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting17,6681635
ConwayTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,8971775
CummingtonTownHampshireOpen town meeting8721779
DaltonTownBerkshireOpen town meeting6,7561784
DanversTownEssexRepresentative town meeting26,4931775
DartmouthTownBristolRepresentative town meeting34,0321664
DedhamTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting24,7291636
DeerfieldTownFranklinOpen town meeting5,1251677
DennisTownBarnstableOpen town meeting14,2071793
DightonTownBristolOpen town meeting7,0861712
DouglasTownWorcesterOpen town meeting8,4711775
DoverTownNorfolkOpen town meeting5,5891836
DracutTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting29,4571701
DudleyTownWorcesterOpen town meeting11,3901732
DunstableTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting3,1791673
DuxburyTownPlymouthOpen town meeting15,0591637
East BridgewaterTownPlymouthOpen town meeting13,7941823
East BrookfieldTownWorcesterOpen town meeting2,1831920
East LongmeadowCityHampdenManager-Council15,7201894
EasthamTownBarnstableOpen town meeting4,9561646
EasthamptonCityHampshireMayor-council16,0531809
EastonTownBristolOpen town meeting23,1121725
EdgartownTownDukesOpen town meeting4,0671671
EgremontTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,2251775
ErvingTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,8001838
EssexTownEssexOpen town meeting3,5041819
EverettCityMiddlesexMayor-council-aldermen41,6671870
FairhavenTownBristolRepresentative town meeting15,8731812
Fall RiverCityBristolMayor-council88,8571803
FalmouthTownBarnstableRepresentative town meeting31,5311686
FitchburgCityWorcesterMayor-council40,3181764
FloridaTownBerkshireOpen town meeting7521805
FoxboroughTownNorfolkOpen town meeting16,8651778
FraminghamCityMiddlesexMayor-council68,3181700
FranklinCity[4]NorfolkCouncil-administrator31,6351778
FreetownTownBristolOpen town meeting8,8701683
GardnerCityWorcesterMayor-council20,2281785
GeorgetownTownEssexOpen town meeting8,1831838
GillTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,5001793
GloucesterCityEssexMayor-council28,7891623
GoshenTownHampshireOpen town meeting1,0541781
GosnoldTownDukesOpen town meeting751864
GraftonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting17,7651735
GranbyTownHampshireOpen town meeting6,2401768
GranvilleTownHampdenOpen town meeting1,5661775
Great BarringtonTownBerkshireOpen town meeting7,1041761
GreenfieldCity[4]FranklinMayor-council17,4561775
GrotonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting10,6461655
GrovelandTownEssexOpen town meeting6,4591850
HadleyTownHampshireOpen town meeting5,2501661
HalifaxTownPlymouthOpen town meeting7,5181734
HamiltonTownEssexOpen town meeting7,7641793
HampdenTownHampdenOpen town meeting5,1391878
HancockTownBerkshireOpen town meeting7171776
HanoverTownPlymouthOpen town meeting13,8791727
HansonTownPlymouthOpen town meeting10,2091820
HardwickTownWorcesterOpen town meeting2,9901739
HarvardTownWorcesterOpen town meeting6,5201732
HarwichTownBarnstableOpen town meeting12,2431694
HatfieldTownHampshireOpen town meeting3,2791670
HaverhillCityEssexMayor-council60,8791641
HawleyTownFranklinOpen town meeting3371792
HeathTownFranklinOpen town meeting7061785
HinghamTownPlymouthOpen town meeting22,1571635
HinsdaleTownBerkshireOpen town meeting2,0321804
HolbrookTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting10,7911872
HoldenTownWorcesterOpen town meeting17,3461741
HollandTownHampdenOpen town meeting2,4811835
HollistonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting13,5471724
HolyokeCityHampdenMayor-council39,8801850
HopedaleTownWorcesterOpen town meeting5,9111886
HopkintonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting14,9251715
HubbardstonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting4,3821775
HudsonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting19,0631866
HullTownPlymouthOpen town meeting10,2931644
HuntingtonTownHampshireOpen town meeting2,1801775
IpswichTownEssexOpen town meeting13,1751634
KingstonTownPlymouthOpen town meeting12,6291726
LakevilleTownPlymouthOpen town meeting10,6021853
LancasterTownWorcesterOpen town meeting8,0551653
LanesboroughTownBerkshireOpen town meeting3,0911765
LawrenceCityEssexMayor-council76,3771847
LeeTownBerkshireRepresentative town meeting5,9431777
LeicesterTownWorcesterOpen town meeting10,9701714
LenoxTownBerkshireOpen town meeting5,0251775
LeominsterCityWorcesterMayor-council40,7591740
LeverettTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,8511774
LexingtonTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting31,3941713
LeydenTownFranklinOpen town meeting7111809
LincolnTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting6,3621754
LittletonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting8,9241715
LongmeadowTownHampdenOpen town meeting15,7841783
LowellCityMiddlesexMayor-manager-council106,5191826
LudlowTownHampdenRepresentative town meeting21,1031775
LunenburgTownWorcesterOpen town meeting10,0861728
LynnCityEssexMayor-council90,3291629
LynnfieldTownEssexOpen town meeting11,5961814
MaldenCityMiddlesexMayor-council59,4501649
Manchester-by-the-SeaTownEssexOpen town meeting5,1361645
MansfieldTownBristolOpen town meeting23,1841775
MarbleheadTownEssexOpen town meeting19,8081629
MarionTownPlymouthOpen town meeting4,9071852
MarlboroughCityMiddlesexMayor-council38,4991660
MarshfieldTownPlymouthOpen town meeting25,1321640
MashpeeTownBarnstableOpen town meeting14,0061870
MattapoisettTownPlymouthOpen town meeting6,0451857
MaynardTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting10,1061871
MedfieldTownNorfolkOpen town meeting12,0241651
MedfordCityMiddlesexMayor-council56,1731630
MedwayTownNorfolkOpen town meeting12,7521713
MelroseCityMiddlesexMayor-aldermen26,9831850
MendonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting5,8391667
MerrimacTownEssexOpen town meeting6,3381876
MethuenCity[4]EssexMayor-council47,2551725
MiddleboroughTownPlymouthOpen town meeting23,1161669
MiddlefieldTownHampshireOpen town meeting5211783
MiddletonTownEssexOpen town meeting8,9871728
MilfordTownWorcesterRepresentative town meeting27,9991780
MillburyTownWorcesterOpen town meeting13,2611813
MillisTownNorfolkOpen town meeting7,8911885
MillvilleTownWorcesterOpen town meeting3,1901916
MiltonTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting27,0031662
MonroeTownFranklinOpen town meeting1211822
MonsonTownHampdenOpen town meeting8,5601775
MontagueTownFranklinRepresentative town meeting8,4371775
MontereyTownBerkshireOpen town meeting9611847
MontgomeryTownHampdenOpen town meeting8381780
Mount WashingtonTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1671779
NahantTownEssexOpen town meeting3,4101853
NantucketTownNantucketOpen town meeting10,1721671
NatickTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting33,0061781
NeedhamTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting28,8861711
New AshfordTownBerkshireOpen town meeting2281835
New BedfordCityBristolMayor-council95,0721787
New BraintreeTownWorcesterOpen town meeting9991775
New MarlboroughTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,5091775
New SalemTownFranklinOpen town meeting9901775
NewburyTownEssexOpen town meeting6,6661635
NewburyportCityEssexMayor-council17,4161764
NewtonCityMiddlesexMayor-council[6]85,1461688
NorfolkTownNorfolkOpen town meeting11,2271870
North AdamsCityBerkshireMayor-council13,7081878
North AndoverTownEssexOpen town meeting28,3521855
North AttleboroughTownBristolRepresentative town meeting28,7121887
North BrookfieldTownWorcesterOpen town meeting4,6801812
North ReadingTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting14,8921853
NorthamptonCityHampshireMayor-council28,5491656
NorthboroughTownWorcesterOpen town meeting14,1551775
NorthbridgeTownWorcesterOpen town meeting15,7071775
NorthfieldTownFranklinOpen town meeting3,0321723
NortonTownBristolOpen town meeting19,0311711
NorwellTownPlymouthOpen town meeting10,5061849
NorwoodTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting28,6021872
Oak BluffsTownDukesOpen town meeting4,5271880
OakhamTownWorcesterOpen town meeting1,9021775
OrangeTownFranklinOpen town meeting7,8391810
OrleansTownBarnstableOpen town meeting5,8901797
OtisTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,6121773
OxfordTownWorcesterOpen town meeting13,7091713
PalmerCity[4]HampdenCouncil-manager12,1401775
PaxtonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting4,8061775
PeabodyCityEssexMayor-council51,2511868
PelhamTownHampshireOpen town meeting1,3211743
PembrokeTownPlymouthOpen town meeting17,8371712
PepperellTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting11,4971775
PeruTownBerkshireOpen town meeting8471771
PetershamTownWorcesterOpen town meeting1,2341754
PhillipstonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting1,6821786
PittsfieldCityBerkshireMayor-council44,7371761
PlainfieldTownHampshireOpen town meeting6481807
PlainvilleTownNorfolkOpen town meeting8,2641905
PlymouthTownPlymouthRepresentative town meeting56,4681620
PlymptonTownPlymouthOpen town meeting2,8201707
PrincetonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting3,4131771
ProvincetownTownBarnstableOpen town meeting2,9421727
QuincyCityNorfolkMayor-council92,2711792
RandolphCity[4]NorfolkCouncil-manager32,1121793
RaynhamTownBristolOpen town meeting13,3831731
ReadingTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting24,7471644
RehobothTownBristolOpen town meeting11,6081645
RevereCitySuffolkMayor-council51,7551846
RichmondTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,4751765
RochesterTownPlymouthOpen town meeting5,2321686
RocklandTownPlymouthOpen town meeting17,4891874
RockportTownEssexOpen town meeting6,9521840
RoweTownFranklinOpen town meeting3931785
RowleyTownEssexOpen town meeting5,8561639
RoyalstonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting1,2581765
RussellTownHampdenOpen town meeting1,7751792
RutlandTownWorcesterOpen town meeting7,9731713
SalemCityEssexMayor-council41,3401626
SalisburyTownEssexOpen town meeting8,2831639
SandisfieldTownBerkshireOpen town meeting9151762
SandwichTownBarnstableOpen town meeting20,6751638
SaugusTownEssexRepresentative town meeting26,6281815
SavoyTownBerkshireOpen town meeting6921797
ScituateTownPlymouthOpen town meeting18,1331636
SeekonkTownBristolOpen town meeting13,7221812
SharonTownNorfolkOpen town meeting17,6121775
SheffieldTownBerkshireOpen town meeting3,2571733
ShelburneTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,8931775
SherbornTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting4,1191674
ShirleyTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting7,2111775
ShrewsburyTownWorcesterRepresentative town meeting35,6081727
ShutesburyTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,7711761
SomersetTownBristolOpen town meeting18,1651790
SomervilleCityMiddlesexMayor-aldermen75,7541842
South HadleyTownHampshireRepresentative town meeting17,5141775
SouthamptonTownHampshireOpen town meeting5,7921775
SouthboroughTownWorcesterOpen town meeting9,7671727
SouthbridgeCity[4]WorcesterCouncil-manager16,7191816
SouthwickTownHampdenOpen town meeting9,5021775
SpencerTownWorcesterOpen town meeting11,6881775
SpringfieldCityHampdenMayor-council153,0601636
SterlingTownWorcesterOpen town meeting7,8081781
StockbridgeTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,9471739
StonehamTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting21,4371725
StoughtonTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting26,9621726
StowTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting6,5901683
SturbridgeTownWorcesterOpen town meeting9,2681738
SudburyTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting17,6591639
SunderlandTownFranklinOpen town meeting3,6841714
SuttonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting8,9631714
SwampscottTownEssexRepresentative town meeting13,7871852
SwanseaTownBristolOpen town meeting15,8651667
TauntonCityBristolMayor-council55,8741639
TempletonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting8,0131762
TewksburyTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting28,9611734
TisburyTownDukesOpen town meeting3,9491671
TollandTownHampdenOpen town meeting4851810
TopsfieldTownEssexOpen town meeting6,0851650
TownsendTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting8,9261732
TruroTownBarnstableOpen town meeting2,0031709
TyngsboroughTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting11,2921809
TyringhamTownBerkshireOpen town meeting3271762
UptonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting7,5421735
UxbridgeTownWorcesterOpen town meeting13,4571727
WakefieldTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting24,9321812
WalesTownHampdenOpen town meeting1,8381762
WalpoleTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting24,0701724
WalthamCityMiddlesexMayor-council60,6321738
WareTownHampshireOpen town meeting9,8721775
WarehamTownPlymouthOpen town meeting21,8221739
WarrenTownWorcesterOpen town meeting5,1351742
WarwickTownFranklinOpen town meeting7801763
WashingtonTownBerkshireOpen town meeting5381777
WatertownCity[4]MiddlesexCouncil-manager31,9151630
WaylandTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting12,9941780
WebsterTownWorcesterOpen town meeting16,7671832
WellesleyTownNorfolkRepresentative town meeting27,9821881
WellfleetTownBarnstableOpen town meeting2,7501775
WendellTownFranklinOpen town meeting8481781
WenhamTownEssexOpen town meeting4,8751643
West BoylstonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting7,6691808
West BridgewaterTownPlymouthOpen town meeting6,9161822
West BrookfieldTownWorcesterOpen town meeting3,7011848
West NewburyTownEssexOpen town meeting4,2351819
West SpringfieldCity[4]HampdenMayor-council28,3911774
West StockbridgeTownBerkshireOpen town meeting1,3061775
West TisburyTownDukesOpen town meeting2,7401892
WestboroughTownWorcesterOpen town meeting18,2721717
WestfieldCityHampdenMayor-council41,0941669
WestfordTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting21,9511729
WesthamptonTownHampshireOpen town meeting1,6071778
WestminsterTownWorcesterOpen town meeting7,2771770
WestonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting11,2611713
WestportTownBristolOpen town meeting15,5321787
WestwoodTownNorfolkOpen town meeting14,6181897
WeymouthCity[4]NorfolkMayor-council53,7431635
WhatelyTownFranklinOpen town meeting1,4961771
WhitmanTownPlymouthOpen town meeting14,4891875
WilbrahamTownHampdenOpen town meeting14,2191763
WilliamsburgTownHampshireOpen town meeting2,4821775
WilliamstownTownBerkshireOpen town meeting7,7541765
WilmingtonTownMiddlesexOpen town meeting22,3251730
WinchendonTownWorcesterOpen town meeting10,3001764
WinchesterTownMiddlesexRepresentative town meeting21,3741850
WindsorTownBerkshireOpen town meeting8991771
WinthropCity[4]SuffolkCouncil-manager17,4971852
WoburnCityMiddlesexMayor-aldermen38,1201642
WorcesterCityWorcesterMayor-manager-council181,0451684
WorthingtonTownHampshireOpen town meeting1,1561768
WrenthamTownNorfolkOpen town meeting10,9551673
YarmouthTownBarnstableOpen town meeting23,7931639

List of cities by official name[edit]

The following tabular list shows the 56 government divisions of the Commonwealth which have been officially granted the right to use the city form of government along with the official name in use by each municipality.[Note 1]

MunicipalityOfficial nameWeb reference
AgawamTown of Agawamhttp://www.agawam.ma.us/
AmesburyCity of Amesburyhttp://www.amesburyma.gov/
AttleboroCity of Attleborohttp://www.cityofattleboro.us/
BarnstableTown of Barnstablehttp://www.town.barnstable.ma.us/
BeverlyCity of Beverlyhttp://www.beverlyma.gov
BostonCity of Bostonhttp://www.cityofboston.gov/
BraintreeTown of Braintreehttp://www.townofbraintreegov.org/
BridgewaterTown of Bridgewaterhttp://www.bridgewaterma.org/
BrocktonCity of Brocktonhttp://www.brockton.ma.us/
CambridgeCity of Cambridgehttp://www.cambridgema.gov/
ChelseaCity of Chelseahttp://www.ci.chelsea.ma.us/
ChicopeeCity of Chicopeehttp://www.chicopeema.gov/
EasthamptonCity of Easthamptonhttp://www.easthampton.org/
EverettCity of Everetthttp://www.ci.everett.ma.us/
Fall RiverCity of Fall Riverhttp://www.fallriverma.org/
FitchburgCity of Fitchburghttp://www.ci.fitchburg.ma.us/
FraminghamCity of Framinghamhttp://www.framinghamma.gov/
FranklinTown of Franklinhttp://www.franklinma.gov/
GardnerCity of Gardnerhttp://www.gardner-ma.gov/
GloucesterCity of Gloucesterhttp://gloucester-ma.gov/
GreenfieldCity of Greenfieldhttps://greenfield-ma.gov/
HaverhillCity of Haverhillhttp://www.ci.haverhill.ma.us/
HolyokeCity of Holyokehttp://www.holyoke.org/
LawrenceCity of Lawrencehttp://www.cityoflawrence.com
LeominsterCity of Leominsterhttp://www.leominster-ma.gov/
LowellCity of Lowellhttp://www.lowellma.gov/
LynnCity of Lynnhttp://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/
MaldenCity of Maldenhttp://www.cityofmalden.org/
MarlboroughCity of Marlboroughhttp://www.marlborough-ma.gov/
MedfordCity of Medfordhttp://www.medford.org/
MelroseCity of Melrosehttp://www.cityofmelrose.org/
MethuenCity of Methuenhttp://www.ci.methuen.ma.us/
New BedfordCity of New Bedfordhttp://www.newbedford-ma.gov/
NewburyportCity of Newburyporthttp://www.cityofnewburyport.com/
NewtonCity of Newtonhttp://www.newtonma.gov/
North AdamsCity of North Adamshttp://www.northadams-ma.gov/
NorthamptonCity of Northamptonhttp://www.northamptonma.gov/
PalmerTown of Palmerhttp://www.townofpalmer.com
PeabodyCity of Peabodyhttp://www.peabody-ma.gov/
PittsfieldCity of Pittsfieldhttp://www.pittsfield-ma.org/
QuincyCity of Quincyhttp://www.quincyma.gov/
Randolph[7]Town of Randolphhttps://www.randolph-ma.gov/
RevereCity of Reverehttp://www.revere.org/
SalemCity of Salemhttp://www.salem.com
SomervilleCity of Somervillehttp://www.somervillema.gov
SouthbridgeTown of Southbridgehttp://www.ci.southbridge.ma.us
SpringfieldCity of Springfieldhttp://www.springfieldcityhall.com
TauntonCity of Tauntonhttp://www.taunton-ma.gov
WalthamCity of Walthamhttp://www.city.waltham.ma.us/
WatertownTown of Watertownhttp://www.watertown-ma.gov
WestfieldCity of Westfieldhttp://www.cityofwestfield.org
West SpringfieldTown of West Springfieldhttp://www.townofwestspringfield.org/
WeymouthTown of Weymouthhttp://www.weymouth.ma.us/
WinthropTown of Winthrophttp://www.town.winthrop.ma.us/
WoburnCity of Woburnhttp://www.cityofwoburn.com/
WorcesterCity of Worcesterhttp://www.ci.worcester.ma.us/


Providence
179,509
2Warwick81,218
3Cranston80,979
4Pawtucket71,770
5East Providence47,425
6Woonsocket41,508
7Coventry34,873
8Cumberland34,498
9North Providence32,345
10South Kingstown30,712
11Johnston29,159
12West Warwick28,709
13North Kingstown26,178
14Newport24,745
15Westerly22,626
16Bristol22,318
17Lincoln21,630
18Smithfield21,611
19Central Falls19,395
20Portsmouth17,463
21Burrillville16,363
22Barrington16,218
23Middletown16,100
24Tiverton15,870
25Narragansett15,601
26East Greenwich13,094
27North Smithfield12,301
28Scituate10,529
29Warren10,492
30Glocester9,993
31Hopkinton8,112
32Charlestown7,762
33Richmond7,608
34Exeter6,761
35West Greenwich6,118
36Jamestown5,505
37Foster4,689
38Little Compton3,521
39New Shoreham830

Thermal Infrared IR Cameras : White Paper

What and Why Thermal cameras?
Thermal cameras, unlike traditional visible cameras, use heat rather than light to see an object, giving them a huge advantage over other imaging technologies. Using minute differences in infrared (IR) radiation they produce a high-contrast thermal image in complete darkness. It is unaffected by bright light and has the ability to see through obstructions such as smoke, dust, and light fog. This makes thermal ideal for a number of applications including but not limited to surveillance & security search and rescue, fire, marine and land navigation, machine vision, and wide area situational assessment.

See it All
Everything above absolute zero (-273°C) emits thermal IR radiation. Thermal cameras convert this into a digital image that can be displayed, distributed and recorded. Humans, animals, and vehicles are very hot in contrast to a background making them easily detectable by a thermal imaging camera, even at distances up to 30km. This technology gives you state-of-the-art protection that can be used in the most demanding applications where the limitations of traditional CCTV and camera technologies just cannot compare.

Imaging in Extreme Conditions 
IR radiation passes through smoke, dust, modest foliage, and light fog with ease, making a person clearly visible even in the worst lighting conditions. Thermal energy is passive and, unlike other technologies, does not artificially increase light or require illumination for clean crisp images both day and night for detection of intruders at extreme ranges. Infiniti’s thermal cameras let you see further than any other night vision technology. There are also certain situations where thermal imaging can be better than regular CCTV cameras even during the day. CCTV cameras can be rendered useless by direct or reflected sunlight, and they rely on contrast in order to identify a intruder. In areas where contrast is poor, visible cameras can be rendered useless. Since humans always give off much more thermal energy than their environment they are easily picked up by video analysis software or human viewers. Trespassers hiding in shadows or bushes are easily spotted, providing maximum protection of your assets and unparalleled situational awareness. 

Ultra Long 24/7 Detection 
Thermal cameras are ideal for detection because they use heat rather than light, meaning they require no artificial illumination. They are able to take advantage of the full view, allowing them to offer both wide-angle and long-range imagery. Thermal cameras offer numerous advantages and can be optimized to suite a host of applications and industries. For security and surveillance applications one thermal camera can replace many traditional cameras and reduce the need for motion and intrusion detectors when integrated with video analytics to provide an automated intrusion detection system. This allows them to actually reduce equipment and installation costs on projects while enhancing security and effectiveness.

Cooled Thermal Infrared Imaging
Cooled thermal imaging cameras are a thermal camera with an integrated cryocooler, hence the name cooled camera. The cooler brings the thermal image core to temperatures as low as -40C. Since thermal cameras work by using heat waves, cooling the core exponentially increases the sensitivity. This dramatically increases both range and performance. Since the Cooler has to constantly maintain temperatures often below freezing point, the cryogenic cooler is continuously running and requires replacement every 8000~10,000 hours of operation. 

Cooled Thermal Cameras Cost of ownership 
This makes cooled cameras have a much higher cost of ownership compared to standard uncooled thermal cameras. Since cooled thermal IR cameras are so sensitive to minute temperature differences, they can spot a target with only a few degrees temperature difference than its background. Cooled thermal cameras are typically Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) and typically use wavelengths of 3-5UM (3000nm~5000nm). The combination of the cooled image core and the ability to work on the MWIR spectrum, when used with Infiniti’s long-range optics, means ultra-long range detection capabilities (up to 20 miles or 30km) even if there is only a few degrees temperature variance between the target and background.

ROI on Cooled Thermal Cameras
While cooled cameras are a significant investment and are considerably more expensive then uncooled counterparts. However their superior range and performance allows them to replace up to 8 uncooled cameras, making them a viable and cost effective solution for certain applications such as home land security, and coastal surveillance.

Uncooled Thermal Infrared Cameras 
Uncooled thermal imaging cameras are infrared cameras that do not require cryogenic cooling. A common detector design is based on the micro bolometer, a tiny vanadium oxide resistor with a large temperature coefficient, a silicon element with large surface area, low heat capacity, and good thermal isolation. Changes in scene temperature cause changes in the bolometer temperature which are converted to electrical signals and processed into an image. Uncooled sensors are designed to work in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) band from 7-14UM (7000nm-14000nm) the wavelength where terrestrial temperature targets emit most of their infrared energy. Uncooled thermal infrared cameras provide up to 8km of detection and have no maintenance cost making them account for over 80% of all thermal cameras due to their low price and high value compared to cooled cameras.

Fixed Vs Integrated Pan-tilt-Zoom (PTZ)
Pan-Tilt Zoom (PTZ) A vast majority of cameras installed are what the industry calls “fixed.” These are designed to monitor a specific region of interest and do not have the ability to adjust the lens or the position of the camera. Infiniti offers PTZ systems, allowing you to pan, tilt, and zoom the camera in any direction for wide area coverage. These systems can be controlled remotely via an operator or set for automatic tours. These features, integrated with intrusion detection, make them extremely versatile. When properly installed, one PTZ camera system can effectively replace many fixed ones and add flexibility to your security system.

Electro-Optical (EO)/Infrared (IR) 
Thermal imaging systems boast a variety of advantages, but because they use passive heat radiation they only have the ability to render images in 256 grey scale. Visible cameras operate on the same spectrum as the human eye and reproduce images with up to 16.7 million colors, allowing you to identify a target rather then just detect and classify it. When there is sufficient amounts of light visible cameras often have larger zoom lenses to optically zoom on a target with focal lengths over 2000mm. This is why Infiniti designs and manufactures multi-sensor systems that use both thermal and visible CCTV cameras to leverage the advantages of both in one integrated system.

Church, Temple, Synagogue Fire Alarm Experts

Church, Temple, Synagogue Fire Alarm Experts

AAA Alarm and Fire Protection has recently completed the design and installation of some of the largest Church/ House of Worship Fire alarm systems in RI. All system designs include AAA expert team to incorporate the delicate nature of the environment and structure, along with minimizing device counts to all the Church to meet current fire alarm code with minimal devices. Call for free estimate today!!

Industrial Facilities Fire Alarm Experts

Industrial Facilities Fire Alarm Experts

RI Fire alarm code requires large scale Industrial facilities to install fire alarm systems. Many of these older “Mill era” facilities already have sprinkler systems installed, yet lack the required smoke detectors, horn/ strobe visual alert horns, heat detectors, and pull stations at all means of exits. AAA Alarm specializes in working together with facility sprinkler systems so as to minimize the required number of detectors. Call (401) 828-2271 Today for a free walk through and design for your facility.

AAA Alarms now licensed in state of Connecticut!

AAA Alarms and Fire Protection is Now Licensed in Connecticut, completing their ability to service the RI, Mass and CT tri state area. AAA is proud to now be able to offer their unparalleled High Security Platform to Connecticut businesses with high security needs. AAA specializes in UL Certified Alarm systems for the department of defense and jewelry, banking and precious metals industries. Experts in IP video surveillance, cameras, access control systems along with fire alarm and high security burglar alarm systems round out their portfolio of commercial services.

All Wi Fi is NOT the same! Let AAA Show you the commercial system difference

AAA Alarms via there low voltage licensed technicians, installs state of the art seamless Wi Fi, Wireless Internet backbone systems to attach to your existing corporate or large scale residential home network.  Tired of machinery, printers, laptops and employee cell phones dropping your “wi fi” system?  Let AAA show you how their engineered Wi Fi Managed Platform allows for true Roaming around your facility, from department to department, floor to floor, building to building, without dropping your connection.   Learn how the AAA “Unifi” platform increases  wireless bandwith and speed over “Off the shelf” wi fi routers you may currently be using.   Let AAA speed up your operation.  With a properly design, installed and serviced/upgraded Wi Fi Wireless Internet system, your operation can now expanded effortlessly without regard to constantly cabling machines and computers to keep connectivity, even though your operation demands portability and flexibility.  Learn how the AAA wifi system increases the traffic capacity and device capacity of your corporate network in a scaleable fashion.

Managed Wi-Fi Network Installations from AAA Alarms

AAA announces the new managed platform, cloud based Wi-Fi system installation and service for your large scale facility.   Call AAA Alarms to discuss their new "Unifi" technology that can give your facility comprehensive high speed Wi-Fi coverage throughout, with advanced features such as Roaming, Mesh, and wireless uplinks.  AAA Alarms can handle the entire process for  your company, from concept, to design, installation, and service.   System sophistication allows for environmental scanning of frequency traffic, and adjusting to allow for greatest bandwith and coverage from your Wi Fi System.  From 3 Access points to 3000, AAA can handle the largest of network systems.     Call AAA Alarms today for a no obligation system quote and review of your facility.

IRIS Scan to Disarm Security System

June 30, 2017

AAA Alarms announces the design and release of the industries first and only Security System designed for Ultra High Security Application Facilities, Ultra High Risk Standards, which incorporates the requirement of IRIS Scan in order to disarm the security system.

Technology from IRIS ID has been integrated into a 250 Point UL Listed, High Security Addressable Security Controller to now require the presentation of valid IRIS Scan, in order to disarm the system and report an opening by user, to the AAA UL Central Monitoring Station.   This first in kind technology is the first known application in the US.

For years, the UL Security industry for Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Department of Defense applications has issued standards (UL 681 and UL2050)  in an attempt at making the security systems as secure as possible.  However, ALL Central Station Monitored Security systems have utilized a simple PINPAD disarm sequence.   So no matter how many detectors or sensors, the whole system can fail by an unauthorized person acquiring the PIN CODE either overtly or Covertly (Hidden Camera), as has been done with Bank ATMs in "Skimming".

Now, for the first time, by utilizing advanced Identity authentication, AAA Alarms cannot be disarmed without an authorized user's Eyes being presented to the keypad.

Iris Recognition Technology

 Iris recognition is the best of breed authentication process available today. While many mistake it for retinal scanning, iris recognition simply involves taking a picture of the iris; this picture is used solely for authentication. But what makes iris recognition the authentication system of choice?
  • Stable – the unique pattern in the human iris is formed by 10 months of age, and remains unchanged throughout one’s lifetime
  • Unique – the probability of two rises producing the same code is nearly impossible
  • Flexible – iris recognition technology easily integrates into existing security systems or operates as a standalone
  • Reliable – a distinctive iris pattern is not susceptible to theft, loss or compromise
  • Non-Invasive – unlike retinal screening, iris recognition is non-contact and quick, offering unmatched accuracy when compared to any other security alternative, from distances as far as 12? to 16?

Traditional Notions of Establishing Identity

Historically, identity or authentication conventions were based on things one possessed (a key, a passport, or identity credential), or something one knew (a password, the answer to a question, or a PIN.) This possession or knowledge was generally all that was required to confirm identity or confer privileges. However, these conventions could be compromised – as possession of a token or the requisite knowledge by the wrong individual could, and still does, lead to the valid disarming of a high security system.

The Emergence of Biometrics

To bind identity more closely to an individual and appropriate authorization, a new identity convention is becoming more prevalent. Based not on what a person has or knows, but instead on what physical characteristics or personal behavior traits they exhibit, these are known as biometrics – measurements of behavioral or physical attributes – how an individual smells, walks, signs their name, or even types on a keyboard, their voice, fingers, facial structure, vein patterns or patterns in the iris.

Biometric Appeal of Iris Recognition

Of all the biometric technologies used for human authentication today, it is generally conceded that iris recognition is the most accurate. Coupling this high confidence authentication with factors like outlier group size, speed, usage/human factors, platform versatility and flexibility for use in identification or verification modes – as well as addressing issues like database size/management and privacy concerns – iris recognition has also shown itself to be exceedingly versatile and suited for large population applications.

FIRST IN CLASS, FIRST IN TIME INTEGRATION WITH UL SECURITY SYSTEM AND CENTRAL STATION MONITORING:

Although the IRIS ID technology has existed for over 15 years, it has now been integrated for security system usage, rather than for just unlocking doors.

The Biology Behind the Technology

Like a snowflake, the iris – the externally visible colored ring around the pupil – of every human eye is absolutely unique, exhibiting a distinctive pattern that forms randomly in utero in a process called chaotic morphogenesis. In fact, it’s estimated the chance of two iris (irides) being identical is 1 in 1078.

The Advantage of Iris Recognition

Iris recognition is an attractive technology for identity authentication for several reasons.

  1. The smallest outlier population of all biometrics. Few people can’t use the technology., as most individuals have at least one eye. In a few instances even blind persons have used iris recognition successfully, as the technology is iris pattern-dependent, not sight dependent.
  1. Iris pattern and structure exhibit long-term stability. Structural formation in the human iris is fixed from about one year in age and remains constant (barring trauma, certain rare diseases, or possible change from special some ophthalmologic surgical procedures) over time. So, once a individual is enrolled, re-enrollment requirements are infrequent. With other biometric technologies, changes in voice timbre, weight, hairstyle, finger or hand size, cuts or even the effect of manual labor can trigger the need for re-enrollment.
  1. Ideal for Handling Large Databases. Iris recognition is the only biometric authentication technology designed to work in the 1-n or exhaustive search mode. This makes it ideal for handling applications requiring management of large user groups, such as a National Documentation application might require.. Large databases are accommodated without degradation in authentication accuracy. IrisAccess platforms integrate well with large database back ends like Microsoft SQL and Oracle 9i.
  1. Unmatched Search Speed in the one to many search mode is unmatched by any other technology, and is limited not by database size, but by hardware selected for server management. In a UK Government-commissioned study, Iris ID’s IrisAccess platform searched records nearly 20 times faster than the next fastest technology. Iris ID has developed a high speed matching engine, IrisAccelerator™, designed to deliver 10 million+ matches per second.
  1. Versatile for the One to Many, One to One, Wiegand and Token Environments. While initially designed to work in one-to-many search mode, iris recognition works well in 1-1 matching, or verification mode, making the technology ideal for use in multifactor authentication environments where PINs, or tokens like prox or smartcards are used. In a token environment, many privacy issues related to biometric database management are moot, as the user retains control of biometric data – a small template of 512 bytes per iris.
  1. Safety and Security Measures In Place. Iris recognition involves nothing more than taking a digital picture of the iris pattern (from video), and recreating an encrypted digital template of that pattern. 512-byte iris templates are encrypted and cannot be re-engineered or reconstituted to produce any sort of visual image. Iris recognition therefore affords high level defense against identity theft, a rapidly growing crime. The imaging process involves no lasers or bright lights and authentication is essentially non-contact.
  1. Convenient, Intuitive User Interface. Using the technology is an almost intuitive experience, requiring relatively little cooperation from subjects. Proximity sensors activate the equipment, which incorporates mirror-assisted alignment functionality. Audio auto-positioning prompts, automated image capture, and visual and audio authentication decision-cueing completes the process.

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